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Male to Female

Sex change surgery

Gender reassignment, sex reassignment, or sex change surgery is performed for people with gender dysphoria to transition to their desired gender. Gender dysphoria is a condition wherein the person feels that they are born with the wrong gender and that they identify themselves more as the other gender. A gender affirmation surgery performed on such people is of three different types. The past reports of sex change surgery have observed that these surgeries improve the mental health and quality of life of the concerned person.

What is sex change surgery?

Sex change surgery, commonly known as genital reconstruction or gender reassignment surgery, is a surgical procedure wherein the appearance and function of the sexual structure of a person are changed. The surgery can be done to transition male to female and vice versa. Surgery is a common treatment option for transgender people and people suffering from gender dysphoria.

What are the types of sex change surgery?

The sex change surgery aims at giving a body to the person that aligns well with their gender. Sex change surgery is not a single surgery but a set of procedures done on the face, chest, and genitals. The sex change surgery is of different types depending upon the procedures performed during the surgery. The main types of sex change surgery are:

Facial reconstructive surgery

As the name suggests, this procedure changes your facial features so that your face looks more feminine or masculine depending on the gender to which you are transforming. 

Top surgery

This surgery refers to the procedures done on the upper part of your body. In a sex change surgery from male to female, the breast size and shape are enhanced to give it a more enhanced appearance whereas, in the case of a female to male sex change surgery, the breast tissues are removed from the chest to give it a masculine appearance.

Bottom surgery

This involves reconstruction of the genitals depending upon the sex in which the patient is getting transformed.

Why is sex change surgery done?

A sex change surgery is generally done for people who want to change their gender. However, the surgery is not performed on all people. The individuals who can go for a sex change surgery include:

  • People who are identified as transgenders
  • People who are mentally healthy. A mental health evaluation test determines the mental health of an individual.
  • People who are diagnosed with gender dysphoria or gender identity disorder
What are the procedures involved in sex change surgery? The procedures involved in a sex change surgery vary depending upon the gender you are transforming into.  Male to female sex change surgery There are several steps involved in a male-to-female sex change surgery. These steps include:
  • A psychiatrist first consults the patient to confirm whether or not they are suffering from gender dysphoria.
  • Consultation is also done to know whether or not they are mentally and physically fit to undergo surgery.
  • The patient is  prescribed hormonal therapy for 6 months before they go for surgery.
  • After complete consultation and hormone therapy, the patient is taken for surgery. The procedures involved in the surgery include:
    • Insertion of breast implant to enhance the size and shape of your breasts
    • Bottom surgery involves the removal of the penis (penectomy) and the construction of the vagina (vaginoplasty).
    • The hairline is lowered down to shorten the forehead
    • The nose is reconstructed to make it look more feminine (rhinoplasty)
    • Cheek implants are used to make your cheek look fuller.
    • The upper lip is lifted while the lower lip is reduced in size.
    • Reduction of the Adam’s apple
    • Full body laser treatment is done to reduce hair.
    • Liposuction can be done at the waist to make it look slim.
    • Fat is injected into your buttocks (Brazilian buttock lift).


  1. Consultation by a psychiatrist with a confirmed diagnosis of suffering from gender dysphoria and fit to undergo surgery.
  2.  Endocrinological referral and on hormonal therapy for 6 months
  3. Cross-dressing for a period of 2 years.

Male to female gender reassignment

Procedures for the transformation:

  1.   Breast implant insertion
  2.    Penectomy with inversion vaginoplasty surgery (Bottom Surgery)
  3.   Lowering of hairline/Shortening of forehead
  4. Rhinoplasty
  5.  Cheek implants/Malar enhancement
  6. Upper lip lift and Lower lip reduction
  7. Adams apple reduction
  8. Full body laser hair reduction

Liposuction of waist with fat injection of buttocks(Brazilian buttock lift)

Q1 Can you change your gender from male to female?
A1 In male to female surgery, the testicles and most of the penis are removed and the urethra is cut shorter. Some of the skin is used to fashion a largely functional vagina. A “neoclitoris” that allows sensation can be created from parts of the penis.

Q2 What happens when you transition from male to female?
A2 For men who transition to women, complications may include: Tissue death of the skin — typically from the penis and scrotum — used to create the vagina and vulva. Narrowing of the urethra that can block the flow of urine and lead to kidney damage.

Q3 Is male to female surgery painful?
A3 For the patient, severe pain, bruising and general discomfort for days after the male-to-female procedure are common. And the female-to-male gender-reassignment surgery is even more difficult surgically, with a longer recovery period.